The circular flow of economic activity

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1. THE CIRCULAR FLOW OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITY

THE CIRCULAR FLOW OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITY


2. Circular Flow Concepts Product Market – where goods and services are exchanged Households – suppliers of the factors of production & demanders of goods and services Government – providers of public goods and services & demanders of both private goods and services and the factors of production Businesses / Firms – suppliers of goods and services & demanders of the factors of production Factor Market – where the factors of production are exchanged

3. The circular-flow diagram is a model that represents the transactions in an economy by flows around a circle. Two sectors models a.) savings economy b.) non-savings economy Three sectors models Four sectors models

4. Two sectors model (no savings economy) Factors of payment (rent, wages, interest, profit) Factors of Production (land, labor, capital, entrepreneur) Household Sector Business Firm Output of G/S Consumption of G/S
in the circular economic flow diagram households.

5. (savings economy) Factors of payment (rent, wages, interest, profit) Factors of Production (land, labor, capital, entrepreneur) Business Firm Household Sector Output of G/S Consumption of G/S Household savings Expansion of business

6. Three sectors models It includes household sector, producing sector and government sector. It will study a circular flow income in these sectors excluding rest of the world i.e. closed economy income. Here flows from household sector and producing sector to government sector are in the form of taxes. The income received from the government sector flows to producing and household sector in the form of payments for government purchases of goods and services as well as payment of subsides and transfer payments. Every payment has a receipt in response of it by which aggregate expenditure of an economy becomes identical to aggregate income and makes this circular flow unending.

7. Factors of payment (rent, wages, interest, profit) Taxes Factors of Production (land, labor, capital, entrepreneur) Business Firm Household Sector Government (BIR) Output of G/S Consumption of G/S Household savings Expansion of business Government expenditure

8. Four sectors models A modern monetary economy comprises a network of four sector economy these are1.Household sector 2. Firms or Producing sector 3. Government sector 4. Rest of the world sector. Each of the above sectors receives some payments from the other in lieu of goods and services which makes a regular flow of goods and physical services. Money facilitates such an exchange smoothly. A residual of each market comes in capital market as saving which in turn is invested in firms and government sector. Technically speaking, so long as lending is equal to the borrowing i.e. leakage is equal to injections, the circular flow will continue indefinitely. However this job is done by financial institutions in the economy.

9. Factors of payment (rent, wages, interest, profit) Taxes Import Government (BIR) Other countries Factors of Production (land, labor, capital, entrepreneur) Business Firm Household Sector Output of G/S Consumption of G/S Household savings Expansion of business Government expenditure Export

10. 3 Classification of countries LDCS- Low Developed Countries IMCS- Intermediate Developed Countries HDCS- Highly Developed Countries

11. LCDS- Low developed countries Country whose state of economic development is characterized by a low national income, a high rate of population growth and unemployment, and dependence on commodity exports. The majority of nations in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, fit this model, which is why they are known collectively as developing countries or third world countries. LDCs generally pay more for the goods they import from more economically advanced nations than they receive in payments.

12. IMCS- Intermediate Developed Countries


13. HDCS- Highly Developed Countries It is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less developed nations. e.g Afghanistan, Pakistan, Eastern African Countries (almost all of them)

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